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Origins of diamonds

How are diamonds created

cash diamondDiamond is the result of the crystallization of carbon in the depths of the earth, more than 180 km from the surface in the earth’s mantle, which has enough energy to make the magic ‘s operates.

Under a pressure of 60,000 atmospheres and temperatures above 1500 ° Celcius the carbon dissolves, transits to a molten metal that will serve as a solvent and catalyst leading to the appearance of diamond crystals which will gradually swell.

The chemist Antoine Lavoisier uncovered this secret and the diamond composition in 1793, leading to the manufacture of synthetic diamonds beginning in the twentieth century, which with quality improvement are found today in good numbers of industrial applications.

Origins of diamonds

If there were certainly diamonds since the dawn of time, it is difficult to precisely date the discovery of the precious stone. Reference to it were found in Sanskrit texts dating back to ancient India, 400 years before Jesus Christ. The first findings are much closer to our era, and it is a Belgian named Lodewijk Van Berkem who introduced the first one in the fifteenth century. The precious gem quickly became an adornment worn by the upper classes, and the subject of much envy.

Diamond production

Although discoveries resulting from volcanic eruption spreading diamonds at random were able to make a few people very rich, as the rough diamond Eureka accidentally discovered on the banks of the Orange River in 1866, then a second one, the star Africa, the means implemented afterwards to find more to the source are gigantic and without limit.

Diamond mining is very complex, as they are buried hundreds of kilometers deep in the Earth’s mantle, it is necessary to dig several square kilometers to extract the valuable rock. For example the so-called Big Hole at Kimberley South Africa is the largest hole ever dug by man. At around 400 meters deep it could store the Eiffel Tower!

After the 16th century in India, then Brazil, South Africa is now the largest producer of rough diamonds in the world. Russia, Botswana, Australia, Congo, Canada, Angola, China, Venezuela, and others complete the list.

Industrial production of synthetic diamonds

It was not until the mid-20th century that chemists were able to manufacture diamonds for industrial use. These small synthetic diamonds are not used in jewelry. They are used to build specify tools, such as scalpels, glass cutters, for applications in electrochemistry due to their resistance to acids and bases, for applications in the semiconductor industry due to their very low conductivity.


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